Dichlorvos is an active ingredient, which is predominantly present in all synthetic and local organophosphorus pesticides used indiscriminately in Nigeria homes and farms. The deleterious effects of this toxicant have been severally reported. Recently, some dichlorvos-based air fresheners have been introduced into the market both for insect eradication and aromatic fragrance, by spraying as mist in homes and offices without the need to vacate the space. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of two variants of dichlorvos-based aerosols, Sharp Action® (insecticide) and Choice Double Action® air freshener) on kidney function indices of experimental rats compared to DD Force® . Thirty-six (36) male albino rats weighing 180-200g were randomly divided into six groups: Sharp Action ® (SA 1 , 1:12; SA 2 , 1:24), Choice Double Action® (CDA 1 , 1:0.5; CDA 2 , 1:1), DD Force® (DDF, 25 ng/kg) and Control, respectively. The 3 commercial samples were orally administered to rats for 21 days, and following overnight fasting, the rats were sacrificed. Blood was collected for biochemical analysis while kidney was excised for organ–body weight assessment. The results obtained showed that the organ-body weight ratio significantly increased in all treated groups (4.4×10-3, 4.1×10-3, 5.2×10-3, 4.9×10-3, 4.8×10-3, respectively) compared to the control (3.3×10-3). Also, serum urea and creatinine significantly increased (p<0.05) in CDA 1 and CDA 2 (8.39±1.14 mg/dl and 9.55±1.08 mg/dl; 7.38±1.11 mg/dl and 8.07±1.17 mg/dl, respectively) similar to DD Force® (6.40±1.02 mg/dl and 7.90±1.18 mg/dl). These were higher compared to SA 1 and SA 2 (5.98±1.01 mg/dl and 6.78±1.05 mg/dl; 5.40±0.09 mg/dl and 6.40±1.03 mg/dl) and control (4.89±0.75mg/dl and 5.83±0.69 mg/dl). Serum albumin and total protein were significantly lowered by the toxicant (50.48±1.73 g/l and 153.95±8.09 g/l; 53.66±1.33 g/l and 139.46±9.59 g/l; 36.93±2.41 g/l and 81.49±4.38 g/l; 41.89±2.79 g/l and 89.83±3.72 g/l; 41.32±1.10 g/l and 89.66±1.38 g/l, respectively) when compared with the control (66.30±3.63 g/l and 216.30±6.87 g/l, p<0.05). These results suggest that kidney function as well as protein synthesis were seriously impaired by all the dichlorvos samples, more importantly by Choice Double Action®. Embracing these dichlorvos-based air fresheners may increase the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the country arising from its nephrotoxicity and ability to damage the kidney.
Key words: Dichlorvos, pesticides, inflammation, nephrotoxicity, chronic kidney disease
Wound healing occupies a significant and growing field of research in the current trends of biomedical sciences. The wound healing process is highly complicated and becomes more complex in nature when it is linked with the diabetic state, which single-handedly is a global health substantial burden. A prominent feature associated with diabetes complications is diabetic foot ulcer. As a result of diabetic glycation and the associated complications, wound healing remains a therapeutic challenge.Especially in the elderly, the treatment for these wounds is fast becoming a major financial challenge as it consumes a great deal of healthcare resources. Treatments available today for these wounds are very expensive, hence the shift to traditional, complementary, and alternative therapy from plant sources, and has gained wide acceptance rising from the availability of scientific evidences that have continuously confirmed folklore especially in Africa and Asia. This chapter presents an overview of how medicinal plants and other natural products have been used to treat diabetes, and wounds with special focus on Nauclea latifolia and Manihot esculenta.
This study has reported the effects of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cocoa pod extract on physiological tolerance indices, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potentials of Corchorus olitorius as well as its efficiency for controlling soil phytopathogens. C. olitorius seeds were grown in soil prepared with water (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 mg AgNPs/g soil. C. olitorus grown with AgNPs had significantly (p < 0.05) higher free radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing ability, percentage germination, vigour indices, longer roots and shoots as well as lower moisture content over control. C. olitorius grown with AgNPs attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- mediated reduction in catalase concentrations and H2O2-induced malondialdehyde elevations in liver. Efficiency of AgNPs to reduce soil phytopathogens (fungi and nematodes) revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the incidences of soil and shoot Meloidogyne spp., Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Fusarium spp. and Cladosporium spp. with increase in concentrations of AgNPs. More efficiently, there was complete extermination of A. niger and Fusarium spp. in the leaves of C. olitorius grown with AgNPs. Results in this study have shown the positive influence of AgNPs on C. olitorius by strengthening its resistance against fungi, and nematodes, improvement of its shelf-life, modulation of antioxidant activities and promotion of liver-detoxifying potentials.
The host genetic factors play important role in determining the outcome of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important host cytokine, which is a key regulator of innate immune system. Genetic variants in MIF gene have been found to be associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Role of MIF is well documented in leishmaniasis diseases, including Indian visceral leishmaniasis, where elevated level of serum MIF has been associated with VL phenotypes. However, there was no genetic study to correlate MIF variants in VL, therefore, we aimed to study the possible association of three reported MIF gene variants −794 CATT, −173G > C and non-coding RNA geneLOC284889 in Indian VL phenotype.
Study subjects comprised of 214 VL patients along with ethnically and demographically matched 220 controls from VL endemic regions of Bihar state in India.
We found no significant difference between cases and controls in allelic, genotypic and haplotype frequency of the markers analysed [-794 CATT repeats (χ2 = 0.86; p = 0.35; OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.61–1.19); −173 G > C polymorphism (χ2 = 1.11; p = 0.29; OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.59–1.16); and LOC284889 (χ2 = 0.78; p = 0.37; OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.61–1.20)].
Since we did not find any significant differences between case and control groups, we conclude that sequencing of complete MIF gene and extensive study on innate and adaptive immunity genes may help in identifying genetic variations that are associated with VL susceptibility/resistance among Indians.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), Leishmania major, Leishmania donovani, Genetic polymorphism, Indian population.
Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of death worldwide. In this sense, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main products of atherosclerosis (ATR), whose origin is multifactorial. The measurable identification of the so-called cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) was a great advance for its prevention. Scientific evidences have shown that the reduction of mortality due to cardiovascular disease is an important achievement of the optimal control of CRF. However, a large proportion of patients have cardiovascular events when CRF is controlled. It is therefore imperative to stratify the patient’s risk in order to design the specific and individual treatment strategy. Currently, there are cardiovascular risk classification (CVR) scales that contemplate the combination of the multiple CRF that patients may present, although it is known that most of these algorithms sub- or overestimate the possibility of cardiovascular events. The incorporation of intermediate cardiovascular surrogates to CRF and events, such as the measurement of carotid atherosclerosis, is demonstrating an improvement in the diagnosis and fewer events in the healthy population, with high cardiovascular risk, treated with the incorporation of these to the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms.
Keywords Prevention of cardiovascular event, Carotid atherosclerosis, Vascular Doppler, Hypertension, Prevention diet therapy
Objective: The experiment was designed to investigate the modulatory effects of the butanol extract of Manihot esculenta leaf, in vivo, and against the effects of cigarette butt leachate, in vitro on liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT), and its possible hepatoprotection in female Wistar rats.Methods: The powdery form of fresh, air-dried and pulverized M. esculenta leaves were extracted in 95% butanol using Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated to a sticky mass using rotary evaporator. Ethical approval for animal use was obtained from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria (LTH/EC/2014/10/237). Twelve Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 6 rats each, and a separate group of 4 rats were used for the in vitro study. The first set of rats was orally treated daily with the extract for 21 days. Following an overnight fast, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the liver mitochondria isolated by standard methods. Mitochondrial swelling and liver function assays were done spectrophotometrically.Results: In vivo, the extract significantly induced low amplitude pore opening in the absence of exogenous Ca2+; whereas when it was present, the extract slightly inhibited same. Two concentrations of cigarette butt leachate caused appreciable low amplitude swelling in control and treated animals in the presence of Ca2+; in the absence of which highly significant inhibitory effects were observed at the same concentrations, in vitro. Significant increases were also recorded for AST, ALT, bilirubin, total protein and ALP, in vivo.Conclusion: The extract showed promise for hepato-protection against cigarette butt leachate toxicity in the liver of normal rats in the presence of exogenous Ca2+, in vitro.
Keywords: Manihot esculenta leaf extract, cigarette butt leachate, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore, liver function
Fungal species were isolated from irrigation water, cultivation soil, and fresh vegetables samples were obtained from a vegetable field in Southwest Nigeria. Aspergillus group, identified by amplification and sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, were further characterized for aflatoxin production using standard spectrophotometry (365 nm). The highest mean ± SD fungal counts were 3.23 x 103 ± 0.03 CFU/g, 3.07 x 104 ± 0.01 CFU/g and 8.67 x 102 ± 0.13 CFU/ml for vegetable, soil, and water samples, respectively. A total of 32 fungal strains isolated were presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. (50%), Fusarium sp. (6.25%), Chrysonilia sitophila (3.13%), Acremonium sp. (6.25%), Mucor sp. (12.5%), and Rhizopus sp. (21.87%). The molecular characterization of Aspergillus strains revealed Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus fijiensis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus japonicas, and Aspergillus niger. All the 16 Aspergillus species showed aflatoxin B1 production with Aspergillus japonicus (AWF27) isolated from the irrigation water having the highest concentration (106 µg/kg) and Aspergillus fijiensis (ASF6) isolated from soil having the lowest concentration (93 µg/kg). The work revealed the potential for human exposure to mycotoxin through contaminated fresh vegetables. Concerted effort is required, especially in developing countries for cultivation of fresh vegetables in hygienic environment with clean irrigation water.
Keywords: Fungi, Aspergillus, aflatoxin, vegetable, soil, irrigation water.
Antiretroviral drugs have greatly extended the life span of HIV-infected persons, but research suggests they are in high risk of developing diabetes (Nduka et al., 2017). A new tool to preserve vital cells for diabetes treatment can help people with both conditions. Scientists can now save most pre-transplant ‘islet cells’ derived from donors that are vital to restore insulin production in Type 1 diabetes patients. This is important news for HIV positive people, who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, diabetes
The African continent is rich in both flora and fauna resources, which have been extensively used locally in the treatment or cure of a wide variety of ailments. Enquiries into traditional folklore revealed that Euphorbia hirta and Vernonia amygdalina possess antiplasmodial properties among others for the treatment of febrile conditions. We therefore investigated the phytochemistry, antimalarial potencies, hepatic toxicities and renal toxicities of the crude ethanol extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia hirta (CEEH) and leaves of Vernoniaamygdalina (CEVA) using standard procedures. The obtained results showed that CEEH and CEVA contain flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins, but not phlobatannins. CEEH and CEVA mildly inhibited P. berghei schizont maturation (44.36% and 37.85%, respectively), while Artesunate Combination Therapy (ACT) was only slightly potent (>50%) against chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei. CEEH significantly decreased ALP, but significantly increased bilirubin. Both extracts significantly increased the albumin and total protein levels compared to infected, untreated animals. Compared to Camosunate®, CEVA caused further significant increases in creatinine and urea. However, these increases did not indicate organ damage.
Keywords: Euphorbia hirta, Vernonia amygdalina, Plasmodium berghei, Malaria
This work describes a study carried out to determine the antioxidant properties, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory potential of crude ethanol extract of Manihot esculenta matured leaf, in vitro. Antioxidant potential of the extract was ascertained using the 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assays. Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory potential of the ethanol extract was assayed spectrophotometrically using a continuous time scan mode at 293 nm under aerobic condition; while porcine lipase was employed for the determination of its lipase inhibitory activity. The extract showed moderate antioxidant activity against DPPH (40.42±0.43%) and promising superoxide scavenging activity against NBT (94.76±0.44%) compared to different standard antioxidants including butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), uric acid (UA), curcumin (CUR) and ascorbic acid (ASC). This extract showed mild (50.70±0.48%) xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity in comparison to allopurinol (92.1±0.35%), standard inhibitor of XO. Inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase by Manihot esculenta leaf extract was significantly lower than that of the standard drug, Orlistat (67.53±0.22% and 94.81±0.78%, respectively). The results demonstrated that Manihot esculenta leaf extract is a promising source of antioxidants, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory agents.
This study is to investigate and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile (C. volubile), an indigenous plant used in folklore medicine in the Niger delta area of Nigeria. The air-dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation with full column of water, ethanol and methanol to obtain three different extracts. The leaf extracts was further subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts of C. volubile revealed different types of high and low molecular weight chemical entities with varying quantities present in each of the extracts. Furthermore, the leaf extracts possess unique physicochemical characteristics which may be linked to the compounds naturally present in the leaves of C. volubile. The presence of these biologically active compounds may form the basis for the medicinal properties exhibited by the plant.
Cytochrome oxidase is located at the end the electron transport system, where it catalyzes the re-oxidation ofthe last cytochrome molecule in the chain. This final process results in the reduction of molecular oxygen towater. The possible incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen leads to the production of reactive oxygenspecies (ROS) or free radicals such as the superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which are very potent inattacking membrane proteins, resulting in the formation of protein adduct, whose accumulation is toxic to thecell. Endogenous cellular enzymes are available to quench the ROS and free radicals and thus eliminate thetoxic byproducts. These include superoxide dismutase and catalase which remove the superoxide free radicaland hydrogen peroxide, respectively. In this study, the hormetic properties of the cationic peptide fractionswere studied in relation to the modulation of wound healing and to the activities of cytochrome oxidase andcatalase in the hepatocytes of normal rats. The cationic peptide fractions were obtained from the seeds ofCarica papaya (PAW), Chrysophyllum albidum (AGB), Citrullus lanatus (WM), Citrus aurantium (ORG),Thaumatococcus daniellii (TDS) using standard methods. Protein determination was done spectroscopically.In vitro studies were carried out on liver mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fraction, viz: cytochromeoxidase and catalase activity assays, and using a tissue culture model for wound healing, the effects on tissueregeneration of the cationic peptide-rich indigenous African seeds were also studied, in situ. Results showedthat the peptide extracts of Carica papaya and Citrullus lanatus seeds increased the cytochrome oxidaseactivity present in the liver homogenate significantly at 605 nm while that of Thaumatococcus danielliisignificantly increased cytochrome oxidase in the mitochondrial fraction across 605 nm to 630 nm. Peptidespresent in the seeds of Carica papaya, Citrullus lanatus, Thaumatococcus daniellii and Chrysophyllumalbidum were able to increase catalase activity in the mitochondrial fraction while they inhibited same in thetissue homogenate. The peptides also enhanced rat hepatocyte wound healing to varying degrees.Keywords: Hormesis, wound healing, catalase, cytochrome oxidase, cationic seed peptides
Dengue fever is becoming one of the major public health problems in the world and its distribution has been premised on the migration of people from infected regions. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue virus IgGantibody among the patients with febrile conditions attending health facilities in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. The blood samples collected between July and September, 2014 were tested for Plasmodium falciparum and the sera were subsequently subjected to Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect the dengue virus IgG antibody. Of the hundred consented participants screened, 77% were sero-positive for dengue virus IgG antibody while 41% were positive for P. falciparum. Thirty-three (33%) of the participants were positive for both dengue virus IgG antibody and P. falciparum. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of dengue virus IgG antibody and malaria among the participants (P>0.05). The high prevalence of dengue virus IgG and malaria signifies the need by the government of Osun State to sensitize residents and institute urgent measures to mitigate the resultant effects of morbidity and mortality due to dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever which has hitherto appeared to be alien to the area.
Introduction: Symbiotic relationship between gut bacteria, antibacterial activity microbiota and animal models, as well as, between plantparasitic microbes and economic vegetable crops act as a veritable tool to test and provide information on the characteristic changes in health and disease. It provides a framework for control of pathogenic microbes. In this work, therefore, we sought to study the susceptibility of cattle rumen waste and vegetable farm irrigation water bacterial flora to aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Bombacopsis buonopozense and Nauclea latifolia Sm.
Methods: Following cold extraction, phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts was done. Paper disc diffusion method was employed to assay for antibacterial activities of the leaf extracts, while commercial Ofloxacin (5μg), Ci p r o f l o x a c i n ( 5 μ g ) , Ge n t ami c i n ( 1 0 μ g ) , Chloramphenicol (10μg) and Cotrimoxazole (25μg) served as standard antibiotics. Predictions of the functional groups of bioactive compounds in the different fractions of the leaf extracts were made using FTIR spectroscopy.
Results: Approximately 94.87% of the bacteria were sensitive (17-38 mm Inhibition Zone Diameter [IZD]) to the standard commercial antibiotics; while they were not sensitive to the test concentrations of both the aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of B. buonopozense (0-13.5 mm IZD) and N. latifolia (0-11.5 mm IZD).
Conclusion: The non- sensitivity of the plethora of the cattle rumen waste bacteria to aqueous leaf extracts of B.buonopozense and N. latifolia may be indicative of their possible usefulness in bioconservation and environmental protection. This means that the use of cattle rumen waste as manure for economic vegetables may not pose additional threat to the ecosystem as the vegetable farm irrigation water bacterial flora were not sensitive to B. buonopozense and N. latifolia.
Keywords: Bombacopsis buonopozense; Nauclea latifolia; FTIR spectroscopy; bioactive compounds; bacteria, antibacterial activity
The modulatory effect of different concentrations of ethanol extract of matured leaves of M. esculenta, Crantz at 200, 600, 1000 and 1400 µg/ml was investigated in vitro on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore in liver, kidney and heart of diabetic animals in the absence and presence of 20 µM exogenous Ca2+. The extract at these concentrations had no significant (p< 0.05) effect on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) pore of the three organs in the absence of Ca2+. However, in the presence of Ca2+, the extract exhibited significant (p< 0.05) inhibition of mitochondrial membrane transition pore opening: liver by 62.66%, 42.47%, 22.44% and 17.63% at 1400, 1000, 600, and 200 µg/ml, respectively. In the heart, inhibition of MMPT pore opening was by 92.86%, 71.43%, 64.29% and 57.14% at 200, 600, 1400, and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the kidney, the extract also inhibited mitochondrial membrane transition pore opening in a concentration-dependent manner by 92.65%, 91.18%, 89.71% and 72.06% at 1400, 1000, 600, and 200 µg/ml, respectively. Caspase-3 activity in vitro was also reduced with increasing extract concentrations; thus confirming that the extract inhibits MMPT pore opening in the presence of Ca2+. The extract may be able to protect these organs against damage, resulting from Ca2+ overload that may trigger cell death, and as such it may be useful in the management of diseases related to tissue wastage such as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy which are associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Objective: The extracts of N. latifolia Sm, a shrub of dry forest and savanna were studied for proximate, mineral, antinutritional and phytochemical compositions. The root and stem are known to be used in folklore medicine for treatment of several infections, and record has it that all the parts of the plants are medicinally useful. Methods: Cold extraction method was employed using methanol and chloroform. Proximate, antinutrient, mineral analyses and phytochemical screening of plant parts were carried out according standard methods. Using the disc diffusion method, the antimicrobial activities of the methanol and choloroform extracts were ascertained against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella somnei. Results: Results show that the stem has the highest moisture content (7.83±0.04%), while the root sample shows the least (5.93± 0.05%). The highest ash content was observed in the fruit skin (5.42±0.04%) and lowest in the stem (2.71±0.05%). The crude fibre was shown to be highest in the stem (59.38±0.11%) and lowest in the fruit skin (11.24±0.004%). Lipid was highest in the fruit (11.53±0.11%) and lowest in fruit skin. Also protein was highest in fruit (12.76±0.05%) and lowest in fruit skin (8.31±0.01%). The results for antinutritional factors confirmed the presence of cyanide and phytic acid. Cyanide was highest in stem (11.58±0.001mg/kg) and lowest in fruit (3.35±0.003mg/kg). Phytic acid content ranged between 6.28±0.005% and 7.37% among the samples, lowest in the root and highest in fruit. Minerals present show sodium has the highest value (908.67±0.01ppm, root) and phosphorus, the lowest (10.75±0.01ppm, fruit). The extracts were also screened and found to contain important bioactive components including tannins, phlobatannins and saponins. The methanol and chloroform extracts of the root and stem of N. latifolia Sm were studied for their antimicrobial activities on some pathogens. These are Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella somnei. The methanol extracts of both root and stem had more inhibitory effect on the test organisms than the chloroform extracts, which inhibited best at concentration of 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The data produced in this study have confirmed that N. latifolia has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities depending on the method of extraction. The antimicrobial property exhibited by the various samples of this plant as reported here may be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals, while the edibility of the fruit may be due to the moderately high nutritive values and low cyanide content.
Keywords: Nauclea latifolia, phytochemicals, antimicrobial, zone of inhibition
Background: This study was designed to ascertain this claim and to investigate the possible mechanism of action in relation to their phytochemical contents, using crude extracts of N. latifolia and M. esculenta leaves on topical wound in a rat model of Type 1 diabetes.Methods and Materials: The leaves were air-dried under shade and subjected to cold extraction in 95% ethanol. Normoglycaemic male Wistar rats were subjected to 2-month high-energy diet/ fat emulsion manipulation and injected with alloxan (150 mg/kg BW/day, i. p.). Fasting plasma glucose was determined after 7 days and rats with values exceeding 200 mg/dl were selected. 16 diabetic rats (120 – 180 g) were randomly assigned to four groups of four animals each. Wound was inflicted on the back of each rat by excision method. The crude extracts were topically applied over a period of 21 days. The scar tissues were removed at 7 days interval for collagen quantification and wound margin reduction was also monitored using tracing paper.Results: The crude extracts showed efficient wound healing activity as revealed by increased collagen content (scar tissues versus fresh wound tissues ab initio). Percentage wound closure also progressed significantly (p< 0.05) upon topical application of the extracts.Conclusion: The crude extract of N. latifolia leaves has proven to be more potent than that of M. esculenta in wound healing in Type I diabetic rats. It stimulated wound contraction and collagen formation, making it a promising natural product for further screening in search of new chemical entities that can be useful in diabetic wound management.
In this study, an assessment of the analgesic potential of Zea mays L., Nauclea latifolia Sm leaf; leaf and stalk of Manihot esculenta Crantz was made. Pain was induced by 0.6% acetic acid in high fat diet-manipulated, alloxaninduced hyperglycaemic rats. Paracetamol® (65 mg/kgBW) served as positive control, while olive oil was used as negative control. Test groups were administered ethyl acetate extracts of the traditional African herbal extracts (TAHE) at a dose of 50 mg/kgBW. All interventions were administered as a single dose by oral gavage. Analgesic activity was measured by counting the percentage of writhing movements as a measure of alleviation of visceral pain by each intervention. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Zea mays L. and Nauclea latifolia Smith leaf, Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf and stalk had peripheral analgesic activities of 53.27 %, 55.71%, 69.02% and 60.73% respectively as compared to Paracetamol® (57.32%).
First paragraph of the "Introduction":
The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of 17 or more chronic parasitic diseases and related infections that represent the most common illnesses of the world's poorest people (WHO, 2010; Nsofor, 2011). Leishmaniasis is a very important member of the neglected diseases group (Kimutai et al., 2009; Dawit et al., 2012), which is found to be predominant in the northern parts and middle-belt of Nigeria; particularly Kano, Niger, Sokoto; Benue and Jos (Agwale et al., 1993; Ike et al., 1993; Jiya et al., 2007). However, leishmaniasis in these parts of Nigeria present more as cutaneous leishmaniasis (Igbe et al., 2009; Yusuf et al., 2010), and more as co-infection with HIV (Pal, 2005).
The use of herbal remedy is featuring prominently as alternative to orthodox medicine but little is known on scientific validation of their efficacies in malaria treatment. Questionnaire survey was conducted in Osogbo metropolis to identify the frequently used antiplasmodial herbal remedies. The aqueous extracts of the three frequently used antimalaria herbs, Mangifera indica leaves, Lawsonia inermis leaves and Enanthia chloranthastem bark were prepared as described by herbal vendors and subsequently analyzed for phytochemical constituents and antiplasmodial efficiencies using mice model. The qualititave phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed differences in the phytochemical constituents of the three plants. The comparison of the parasite load before and after treatment showed that the parasitamia level reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in the mice treated with E. chlorantha and M. indica but increased significantly (p = 0.012; p < 0.05) in the group treated with L. inermis while no parasite was detected in the group treated with chloroquine (antimalaria drug) after treatment. The treated groups had higher concentrations of creatinine, urea, bilirubin, Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphate in comparison with the control, an indication of the plant extracts cyto‐toxicity. The results therefore showed that the extracts of E. chlorantha and M. indica only possess chemosupressive not curative antimalaria potential while L. inermis did not show any antiplasmodial effect. Further screening on antimalaria herbal remedies therefore becomes imperative so as to guide the policy on malaria treatment regime in Nigeria.
Key words: Phytochemistry, antiplasmodial, plant extracts, biochemical markers