Dichlorvos is an active ingredient, which is predominantly present in all synthetic and local organophosphorus pesticides used indiscriminately in Nigeria homes and farms. The deleterious effects of this toxicant have been severally reported. Recently, some dichlorvos-based air fresheners have been introduced into the market both for insect eradication and aromatic fragrance, by spraying as mist in homes and offices without the need to vacate the space. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of two variants of dichlorvos-based aerosols, Sharp Action® (insecticide) and Choice Double Action® air freshener) on kidney function indices of experimental rats compared to DD Force® . Thirty-six (36) male albino rats weighing 180-200g were randomly divided into six groups: Sharp Action ® (SA 1 , 1:12; SA 2 , 1:24), Choice Double Action® (CDA 1 , 1:0.5; CDA 2 , 1:1), DD Force® (DDF, 25 ng/kg) and Control, respectively. The 3 commercial samples were orally administered to rats for 21 days, and following overnight fasting, the rats were sacrificed. Blood was collected for biochemical analysis while kidney was excised for organ–body weight assessment. The results obtained showed that the organ-body weight ratio significantly increased in all treated groups (4.4×10-3, 4.1×10-3, 5.2×10-3, 4.9×10-3, 4.8×10-3, respectively) compared to the control (3.3×10-3). Also, serum urea and creatinine significantly increased (p<0.05) in CDA 1 and CDA 2 (8.39±1.14 mg/dl and 9.55±1.08 mg/dl; 7.38±1.11 mg/dl and 8.07±1.17 mg/dl, respectively) similar to DD Force® (6.40±1.02 mg/dl and 7.90±1.18 mg/dl). These were higher compared to SA 1 and SA 2 (5.98±1.01 mg/dl and 6.78±1.05 mg/dl; 5.40±0.09 mg/dl and 6.40±1.03 mg/dl) and control (4.89±0.75mg/dl and 5.83±0.69 mg/dl). Serum albumin and total protein were significantly lowered by the toxicant (50.48±1.73 g/l and 153.95±8.09 g/l; 53.66±1.33 g/l and 139.46±9.59 g/l; 36.93±2.41 g/l and 81.49±4.38 g/l; 41.89±2.79 g/l and 89.83±3.72 g/l; 41.32±1.10 g/l and 89.66±1.38 g/l, respectively) when compared with the control (66.30±3.63 g/l and 216.30±6.87 g/l, p<0.05). These results suggest that kidney function as well as protein synthesis were seriously impaired by all the dichlorvos samples, more importantly by Choice Double Action®. Embracing these dichlorvos-based air fresheners may increase the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the country arising from its nephrotoxicity and ability to damage the kidney.
Key words: Dichlorvos, pesticides, inflammation, nephrotoxicity, chronic kidney disease