In this study, an assessment of the analgesic potential of Zea mays L., Nauclea latifolia Sm leaf; leaf and stalk of Manihot esculenta Crantz was made. Pain was induced by 0.6% acetic acid in high fat diet-manipulated, alloxaninduced hyperglycaemic rats. Paracetamol® (65 mg/kgBW) served as positive control, while olive oil was used as negative control. Test groups were administered ethyl acetate extracts of the traditional African herbal extracts (TAHE) at a dose of 50 mg/kgBW. All interventions were administered as a single dose by oral gavage. Analgesic activity was measured by counting the percentage of writhing movements as a measure of alleviation of visceral pain by each intervention. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Zea mays L. and Nauclea latifolia Smith leaf, Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf and stalk had peripheral analgesic activities of 53.27 %, 55.71%, 69.02% and 60.73% respectively as compared to Paracetamol® (57.32%).
First paragraph of the "Introduction":
The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of 17 or more chronic parasitic diseases and related infections that represent the most common illnesses of the world's poorest people (WHO, 2010; Nsofor, 2011). Leishmaniasis is a very important member of the neglected diseases group (Kimutai et al., 2009; Dawit et al., 2012), which is found to be predominant in the northern parts and middle-belt of Nigeria; particularly Kano, Niger, Sokoto; Benue and Jos (Agwale et al., 1993; Ike et al., 1993; Jiya et al., 2007). However, leishmaniasis in these parts of Nigeria present more as cutaneous leishmaniasis (Igbe et al., 2009; Yusuf et al., 2010), and more as co-infection with HIV (Pal, 2005).
The use of herbal remedy is featuring prominently as alternative to orthodox medicine but little is known on scientific validation of their efficacies in malaria treatment. Questionnaire survey was conducted in Osogbo metropolis to identify the frequently used antiplasmodial herbal remedies. The aqueous extracts of the three frequently used antimalaria herbs, Mangifera indica leaves, Lawsonia inermis leaves and Enanthia chloranthastem bark were prepared as described by herbal vendors and subsequently analyzed for phytochemical constituents and antiplasmodial efficiencies using mice model. The qualititave phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed differences in the phytochemical constituents of the three plants. The comparison of the parasite load before and after treatment showed that the parasitamia level reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in the mice treated with E. chlorantha and M. indica but increased significantly (p = 0.012; p < 0.05) in the group treated with L. inermis while no parasite was detected in the group treated with chloroquine (antimalaria drug) after treatment. The treated groups had higher concentrations of creatinine, urea, bilirubin, Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphate in comparison with the control, an indication of the plant extracts cyto‐toxicity. The results therefore showed that the extracts of E. chlorantha and M. indica only possess chemosupressive not curative antimalaria potential while L. inermis did not show any antiplasmodial effect. Further screening on antimalaria herbal remedies therefore becomes imperative so as to guide the policy on malaria treatment regime in Nigeria.
Key words: Phytochemistry, antiplasmodial, plant extracts, biochemical markers
This article reviews, bridges the gap between the folkloric use of Solanum nigrum Linn. (Sn) and the results of evidence based experiments. Although Sn is a rich source of one of plants most dreaded toxins solanine, it has appreciably demonstrated its potential as a reservoir of antioxidants having hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, cytostatic, anti-convulsant, anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. The review encompasses in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies done on Sn, while examining whether or not correct scientific measures have been taken in generating experimental evidences for its traditional uses. This review would afford research scientist to know how much is known and what is left undone in the investigation of Sn.
Key words: Solanum nigrum, folklore medicine, anticancer, solanine.
The incidence of malaria is dramatically increasing, especially because parasites responsible for the majority of fatal malaria infections have now become resistant to commonly used antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine, mefloquine, and quinine. To combat this menace, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a new antimalarial drug called artesunate; a hemi-succinate derivative of artemisinin. The in vivo effects of artesunate on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) pore were investigated in Wister strain albino rats exposed to various doses of artesunate (1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg per kg body weight per day) for five days. Membrane permeability transition was estimated under energized and de energized spectrophotometric method of Lapidus and Sokolove. The results revealed that artesunate tested at the various doses induced mitochondrial pore opening, induction being minimal (68%) at 5 mg/kg and maximal (240%) at 1.5 mg/kg. In vitro, artesunate at 30, 50 and 70 mg/ml also had an inductive effect in a concentration-dependent manner with minimum induction (18.1%) at 30 mg/ml and maximum induction (32.7%) at 70 mg/ml. Further, preincubation of mitochondria with artesunate for five minutes caused an induction of pore opening in a concentration-dependent manner, with minimum induction (7.9%) at 10 mg/ml and maximum induction (48.6%) at 70 mg/ml. In conclusion, these findings indicate that artesunate could be cytotoxic, opening mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore, causing the release of cytochrome c and eventually apoptosis.