In this study, an assessment of the analgesic potential of Zea mays L., Nauclea latifolia Sm leaf; leaf and stalk of Manihot esculenta Crantz was made. Pain was induced by 0.6% acetic acid in high fat diet-manipulated, alloxaninduced hyperglycaemic rats. Paracetamol® (65 mg/kgBW) served as positive control, while olive oil was used as negative control. Test groups were administered ethyl acetate extracts of the traditional African herbal extracts (TAHE) at a dose of 50 mg/kgBW. All interventions were administered as a single dose by oral gavage. Analgesic activity was measured by counting the percentage of writhing movements as a measure of alleviation of visceral pain by each intervention. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Zea mays L. and Nauclea latifolia Smith leaf, Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf and stalk had peripheral analgesic activities of 53.27 %, 55.71%, 69.02% and 60.73% respectively as compared to Paracetamol® (57.32%).
The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of 17 or more c and related infections that represent the most common illnesses of the world's poorest people. Leishmaniasis is a very important member of the neglected diseases group, which is found to be predominant in the northern parts and middle-belt of Nigeria; particularly Kano, Niger, Sokoto; Benue and Jos. However, leishmaniasis in these parts of Nigeria present more as cutaneous leishmaniasis, and more as co-infection with HIV, whereas visceral leishmaniasis is more malignant than the cutaneous manifestation which may self heal with resulting scares.
Keywords: Neglected Tropical Diseases, chronic parasitic diseases, visceral leishmaniasis.
The use of herbal remedy is featuring prominently as alternative to orthodox medicine but little is known on scientific validation of their efficacies in malaria treatment. Questionnaire survey was conducted in Osogbo metropolis to identify the frequently used antiplasmodial herbal remedies. The aqueous extracts of the three frequently used antimalaria herbs, Mangifera indica leaves, Lawsonia inermis leaves and Enanthia chloranthastem bark were prepared as described by herbal vendors and subsequently analyzed for phytochemical constituents and antiplasmodial efficiencies using mice model. The qualititave phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed differences in the phytochemical constituents of the three plants. The comparison of the parasite load before and after treatment showed that the parasitamia level reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in the mice treated with E. chlorantha and M. indica but increased significantly (p = 0.012; p < 0.05) in the group treated with L. inermis while no parasite was detected in the group treated with chloroquine (antimalaria drug) after treatment. The treated groups had higher concentrations of creatinine, urea, bilirubin, Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphate in comparison with the control, an indication of the plant extracts cyto‐toxicity. The results therefore showed that the extracts of E. chlorantha and M. indica only possess chemosupressive not curative antimalaria potential while L. inermis did not show any antiplasmodial effect. Further screening on antimalaria herbal remedies therefore becomes imperative so as to guide the policy on malaria treatment regime in Nigeria.
Key words: Phytochemistry, antiplasmodial, plant extracts, biochemical markers
This article reviews, bridges the gap between the folkloric use of Solanum nigrum Linn. (Sn) and the results of evidence based experiments. Although Sn is a rich source of one of plants most dreaded toxins solanine, it has appreciably demonstrated its potential as a reservoir of antioxidants having hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, cytostatic, anti-convulsant, anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. The review encompasses in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies done on Sn, while examining whether or not correct scientific measures have been taken in generating experimental evidences for its traditional uses. This review would afford research scientist to know how much is known and what is left undone in the investigation of Sn.
Key words: Solanum nigrum, folklore medicine, anticancer, solanine.
The incidence of malaria is dramatically increasing, especially because parasites responsible for the majority of fatal malaria infections have now become resistant to commonly used antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine, mefloquine, and quinine. To combat this menace, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a new antimalarial drug called artesunate; a hemi-succinate derivative of artemisinin. The in vivo effects of artesunate on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) pore were investigated in Wister strain albino rats exposed to various doses of artesunate (1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg per kg body weight per day) for five days. Membrane permeability transition was estimated under energized and de energized spectrophotometric method of Lapidus and Sokolove. The results revealed that artesunate tested at the various doses induced mitochondrial pore opening, induction being minimal (68%) at 5 mg/kg and maximal (240%) at 1.5 mg/kg. In vitro, artesunate at 30, 50 and 70 mg/ml also had an inductive effect in a concentration-dependent manner with minimum induction (18.1%) at 30 mg/ml and maximum induction (32.7%) at 70 mg/ml. Further, preincubation of mitochondria with artesunate for five minutes caused an induction of pore opening in a concentration-dependent manner, with minimum induction (7.9%) at 10 mg/ml and maximum induction (48.6%) at 70 mg/ml. In conclusion, these findings indicate that artesunate could be cytotoxic, opening mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore, causing the release of cytochrome c and eventually apoptosis.
The fears recently expressed by the Energy Commission of Nigeria that the sun will slowly but certainly set on the country’s fossil-fuel-led economy coupled with the worldwide depletion of non- renewable energy sources and its attendant negative environmental impact have resulted in the need to consider alternative renewable fuel sources from the country’s abundant agricultural feedstock. One such crop is oil palm, from which palm kernel oil (PKO) is derived. Transesterification of PKO with ethanol to obtain PKO biodiesel was carried out using potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. ASTM standard fuel tests performed on the PKO biodiesel gave promising results as alternative biodiesel fuel. Concentrations of catalysts have been widely reported as an important process parameter upon which biodiesel yield depends. Further in this work therefore, the effect of KOH concentration on PKO biodiesel yield is studied, with a view to identifying the catalyst concentration corresponding to optimal process yield. Three replicated transesterification experimental runs were carried out for each of the KOH concentrations 0.5 %, 0.75 %, 1.0 %, 1.25 %, 1.5 %, 1.75 % and 2.0 % (by mass of PKO) under identical typical transesterification reaction conditions of 60oC temperature, 120 minutes duration and 20 % ethanol (by mass of PKO). Results of the average PKO biodiesel yield for the respective catalyst concentrations are 90.5 %, 95.0 %, 95.8 %, 85.2 %, 73.3 %, 71.1 % and 71.3 %. The KOH concentration 1.0 % resulting in maximum PKO biodiesel yield (95.8 %) is therefore recommended as optimum, within the constraint of the typical transesterification process parameters used. These findings, agreeing well with earlier works, will find useful applications in the energy sector of the Nigerian economy.
Meterological data were collected from Ilorin and Ikeja on the monthly mean maximum and minimum dry-bulb temperatures, as well as the average dry-bulb temperature during the coolest 15, 25 and 50 percent of the time, and during the warmest 50 percent of the time. The absolute humidities of the ambient air during these times were estimated from data collected on relative humidities and dew point. All these data were further used in calculating the energy requirements for the drying of grain. Also calculated are the power required to pump air through the grain and the periods required for drying. It is found, from a typical case study, that the energy requirement for drying one tonne of grain with moisture content of 22% down to 12.6 percent (wet basis) is 54.0219kWh. The time required by the fan to carry out this drying process is 43.919 hours. The simulated data was compared with an experimental result and there was a reasonable agreement between the two thereby validating the simulation program.